16.1 Elimination Introduction

Learning Objectives

  • Assess factors that put a patient at risk for alterations in urinary and bowel elimination
  • Identify factors related to alterations in elimination across the life span
  • Outline the data that must be collected for identification of alterations in bowel/urine elimination
  • Base decisions on the interpretation of basic diagnostic tests of urinary and bowel elimination: urinalysis and occult blood
  • Detail the nonpharmacologic measures to promote urinary and bowel elimination
  • Identify evidence-based practices

After ingesting food and fluids, our body eliminates waste products through the urinary system and the gastrointestinal system. Nurses provide care for patients with commonly occuring elimination alterations, including urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, constipation, diarrhea, and bowel incontinence. This chapter will provide an overview of these alterations and the associated nursing care.


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