End-of-Chapter Material

Additional Exercises

  1. One brand of ethyl alcohol (Everclear) is 95% ethyl alcohol, with the remaining 5% being water. By definition what is the solvent and what is the solute of this solution?
  2. Give an example of each type of solution from your own experience.
    1. A solution composed of a gas solute in a liquid solvent.
    2. A solution composed of a solid solute in a liquid solvent.
    3. A solution composed of a liquid solute in a liquid solvent.
    4. A solution composed of a solid solute in a solid solvent. (Hint: usually such solutions are made as liquids and then solidified.)
  3. Differentiate between the terms saturated and concentrated.
  4. Differentiate between the terms unsaturated and dilute.
  5. What mass of FeCl2 is present in 445 mL of 0.0812 M FeCl2 solution? (The molar mass of FeCl2 = 126.75 g/mol)
  6. What mass of SO2 is present in 26.8 L of 1.22 M SO2 solution?
  7. What volume of 0.225 M Ca(OH)2 solution is needed to deliver 100.0 g of Ca(OH)2?
  8. What volume of 12.0 M HCl solution is needed to obtain exactly 1.000 kg of HCl?
  9. The World Health Organization recommends that the maximum fluoride ion concentration in drinking water is 1.0 ppm. Assuming water has the maximum concentration if an average person drinks 1,920 mL of water per day, how many milligrams of fluoride ion are being ingested? (assume the density of water is 1.00 g/mL)
  10. For sanitary reasons, water in pools should be chlorinated to a maximum level of 3.0 ppm. In a typical 5,000 gal pool that contains 21,200 kg of water, what mass of chlorine must be added to obtain this concentration?
  11. Order these solutions in order of increasing boiling point, assuming an ideal van’t Hoff factor for each: 0.10 m C6H12O6, 0.06 m NaCl, 0.4 m Au(NO3)3, and 0.4 m Al2(SO4)3.
  12. If a cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, will water move into or out of the cell?


1. solvent: ethyl alcohol; solute: water

3. Saturated means all the possible solute that can dissolve is dissolved, whereas concentrated implies that a lot of solute is dissolved.

5. 4.58 g

7. 6.00 L

9. 1.92 mg

11. 0.10 m C6H12O6 < 0.06 m NaCl < 0.4 m Au(NO3)3 < 0.4 m Al2(SO4)3


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